Lactated ringer's solution
Lactated ringer's solution is one of the most common crystalloid solutions used in a small animal practice. It has an osmolality comparable to extracellular fluid, so it is considered an isotonic solution. Most lactated Ringer?s solution that are commercially available are marketed for people, therefore the actual osmolality of lactated Ringer?s solution is slightly less than the osmolality of canine and feline extracellular fluid/plasma. The sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations of lactated Ringer?s solution are comparable to extracellular fluid, although the sodium concentration is iso ionic to human extracellular fluid/plasma and is slightly lower than the sodium concentration of canine and feline extracellular fluid/plasma. Lactated Ringer?s solution contains lactate, which is converted by the liver to bicarbonate.