Doses - POTASSIUM CHLORIDE, POTASSIUM GLUCONATE
Dogs & Cats:For hypokalemia:
a) Intravenous replacement: If animal has normal renal function, IV KCl not to exceed 0.5 mEq/kg/hr. Use IV replacement very cautiously in animals with impaired renal function or in those receiving potassium-sparing diuretics.
Subcutaneous replacement: If IV use is unfeasible or rapid correction is unnecessary, may add KCl to SQ fluids; do not exceed 30 mEq of potassium per liter.
Oral replacement: Potassium gluconate PO at a rate of 2.2 mEq per 100 calories of required energy intake or potassium gluconate elixir (20 mEq/ml) for dogs at 5 ml q8-12h PO. (Bell and Osborne 1986)
b) Oral using Tumil-K® (Daniels): 1/4 teaspoonful (2 mEq) per 4.5 kg body weight PO in food twice daily. Adjust dose as necessary. (Package insert; Tumil-K®¯Daniels).
Ruminants:For hypokalemia in "downer" cows:
a) 80 g sodium chloride and 20 g potassium chloride in 10 liters of water PO via stomachtube. Provide a bucket containing similar solution for cow to drink and anothercontaining fresh water. (Caple 1986)
a) 50 grams PO daily; 1 mEq/kg/hr IV drip. (Howard 1986)
Monitoring Parameters - Level and frequency of monitoring associated with potassiumtherapy is dependent upon the cause and/or severity of hypokalemia, acid/baseabnormalities, renal function, and concomitant drugs administered or disease states andcan include: 1) Serum potassium ; 2) Other electrolytes; 3) Acid/base status; 4) Glucose;
5) ECG; 6) CBC; 7) Urinalyses
Dosage Forms/Preparations/FDA Approval Status/Withholding Times - Veterinary-Approved Products:
There are several products for parenteral use that contain potassium; refer to the tables at the end ofthis section or individual proprietary veterinary products (e.g., Cal-Dextro® K¯Fort Dodge) foradditional information.
Potassium Gluconate Oral Powder Each 0.65 gram 4 oz (1/4 teaspoonful) contains 2 mEq ofpotassium; in 4 oz. containers Tumil-K ® (Daniels) (Rx)
Tumil-KCaplets® (Daniels); (Rx) Approved for use in dogs and cats.
Tumil-K Gel® (Daniels) (Rx) 5 oz/tube
Human-Approved Products: Not a complete list.
Potassium Chloride for Injection 2 mEq/ml in 250 & 500 ml; 10 mEq in 10 & 20 ml vials, syringes, & amps; 30 mEq in 14, 20, 30 & 100 ml vials and 20 ml syringes; 40 mEq in 20, 30, 50 & 100 ml vials, 20 ml amps and syringes; 60 mEq & 90 mEq in 30 ml vials. Must be diluted before administering. (Rx)
Potassium acetate for injection and potassium phosphate for injection (see previous monograph) arealso available.
There are a multitude of human-labeled potassium salts for oral use available in several dosageforms; refer to human drug references for more information on these products.
Potassium Citrate - see Citrate Salts